Christopher  Gammon

Geological Engineering


Christopher  Gammons,  Ph.D

Chris Gammons
Past recipient of the
Stan and Joyce Lesar Professorship

Past recipient of the Stan and Joyce Lesar Professorship
Ph.D., Geochemistry & Mineralogy, Penn State University, 1988

B.Sc., Geology, Bates College, 1980


Aqueous geochemistry at high and low temperatures, economic geology, acid mine drainage, stable isotopes » see also Dr. Gammons' current & former students' research projects


Physical Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Metallic Ore Deposits, Field Geology, Field Hydrogeology, Acid Mine Drainage, Hydrogeochemistry, Montana Geology, Isotope Geochemistry

View a full CV

Recent student projects


tel: 406-496-4763
fax: 406-496-4260

Recent Publications

(2010-present) student authors underlined

Gammons C.H. and Allin N.C. (2017) Stability of Fe(III) chloride complexes and hematite solubility to 300ºC: Applications to the origin of IOCG deposits. Proc. 2017 SGA Meeting, Quebec City, 4pp.  

Allin N.C. and Gammons C.H. (2017) Reduction of arsenite and sulfate by elemental copper, nickel and cobalt: implications to the formation of arsenide minerals in low temperature hydrothermal deposits.  Proc. 2017 SGA Meeting, Quebec City, August, 2017, 4pp. 

Eastman, K.A., Doolittle, M.F., Gammons, C.H., Poulson, S.R. (2017) The Mount Evans gossan: a source of natural acid rock drainage and a possible source of metals and sulfur for the Butte porphyry-lode orebodies.  Northwest Geology, v. 46, 67-74. 


Shaw G., Mitchell, K., Gammons C.H. (2017) Estimating groundwater inflow and leakage outflow for an intermontane lake with a structurally complex geology: Georgetown Lake in Montana, USA. Hydrogeology J. 25, 135-149.

Gammons C.H., Szarkowski J., Stevenson R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, Montana.  Mining Engineering, Web Exclusive, June, 2016.   

Parker S.R., West R.F., Boyd E.S., Feyhl-Buska J., Gammons C.H., Johnston T.B., Williams G.P., Poulson S.R. (2016) Biogeochemical and microbial seasonal dynamics between water column and sediment processes in a productive mountain lake: Georgetown Lake, MT, USA.  J. Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 121, 2064-2081.

Griffith A. and Gammons C.H. (2015) Mineral paragenesis of epithermal gold-silver veins at the Drumlummon mine, Marysville, Montana.  Northwest Geology, v. 44, 37-46.

Williams G.P., Petteys K., Gammons C.H., Parker S.R. (2015) An investigation of acidic head-water streams in the Judith Mountains, Montana, USA. Applied Geochemistry v. 62, 48-60.

Tucci N.J., Gammons C.H. (2015) Influence of copper recovery on the water quality of the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Montana, USA., Environmental Science and Technology 49, 4081-4088.

Castendyk D.N., Balistrieri L.S., Gammons C. and Tucci N. (2015) Modeling and management of pit lake water chemistry 2: Case Studies. Applied Geochemistry 57, 289-307.

Gammons C.H., Nimick D.A., and Parker S.R. (2015) Diel cycling of trace metals in streams draining abandoned mine lands: a review.  Applied Geochemistry 57, 35-44.

Gammons C.H., Henne W., Poulson S.R., Parker S.A., Johnston T., Dore J., Boyd E. (2014) Stable isotopes track biogeochemical processes under ice cover in a shallow, productive lake.  Biogeochemistry 120, 359-379.      

White J., Gammons C.H., Zieg G.A. (2013) Paragenesis of cobalt and nickel in the Black Butte shale-hosted copper deposit, Belt Basin, Montana, USA.  Mineralium Deposita, 49, 335-351.

Parker S.R., Darvis M.N., Poulson S.R., Gammons C.H., Stanford J.A. (2013) Dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotope composition and concentration fluxes across several shallow floodplain aquifers.  Biogeochemistry, 117, 539-552.

Gammons C.H., Pape B.L., Parker S.R., Poulson S.R., Blank C. (2013) Geochemistry, water balance, and stable isotopes of a “clean” pit lake at an abandoned tungsten mine, Montana, USA.  Applied Geochemistry 36, 57-69.

Shaw G.E. White E., Gammons C.H. (2013) Characterizing groundwater-lake interactions and its impact on water quality. Journal of Hydrology 492, 69-78. 

Gammons C.H., Brown A., Poulson S.R., and Henderson T. (2013) Using stable isotopes (S, O) of sulfate to track contamination of the Madison karst aquifer, Montana, from coal mine drainage. Applied Geochemistry 31, 228-238.  

Parker S. R., C. H. Gammons, M. G. Smith, S. R. Poulson (2012) Behavior of stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrate in groundwater at a former wood treatment facility containing hydrocarbon contamination.  Applied Geochemistry 27, 1101-1110.   

Smith M.G., Parker S.R., Gammons C.H., Poulson S.R.. Hauer F.R. (2011) Tracing dissolved O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotope dynamics in the Nyack aquifer: Middle Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 5971-5986. 

Nimick D.A., Gammons C.H., Parker S.R. (2011) Diel biogeochemical processes and their affect on the aqueous chemistry of streams: A review.  Chemical Geology, 283, 3-17.

Gammons C.H., Babcock J., Parker S.R., Poulson S.R. (2011) Diel cycling and stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nitrogenous species in a stream receiving treated municipal sewage.  Chemical Geology, 283, 44-55.

Gammons C.H., Sotendahl J., and Everett D. (2010) Secondary enrichment of copper at the Madison Gold skarn deposit, Silver Star district, Montana.  Northwest Geology, v. 39, 15-24.

Parker S.R., Gammons C.H., Poulson S.R., DeGrandpre M.D., Weyer C.L., Smith M.G., Babcock J.N., Oba Y. (2010) Diel behavior of stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon in rivers over a range of trophic conditions, and in a mesocosm experiment. Chemical Geology 269, 22-32.  

Gammons C.H., Duaime T.E., Parker S.R., Poulson S.R., Kennelly P. (2010) Geochemistry and stable isotope investigation of acid mine drainage associated with abandoned coal mines in central Montana, USA. Chemical Geology 269, 100-112.